Voxeljet Technology, from Germany, was premiering a brand new technology called the Phenolic-Direct-Binding (PDB) method. Voxeljet's research laboratory has been doing extensive work on phenolic resin binders for some time. The new binder offers a number of advantages for many 3D printing applications, including sand printing, but also allows for the production of ceramic molds. Using this binder, an unprecedented level of resolution and precision in 3D printing can be achieved, according to one process engineer. The phenolic resin that is used is not toxic and allows for 100% recycling of the non-printed particle material. In contrast to conventional binders, the PDB process does not require silica sand to be pre-treated, which means that it can be easily returned to the sand cycle. Voxeljet says it expects to offer the new material-set for various printer platforms by the middle of 2015. Until that time, the company will be working on implementing and optimizing the process for relevant printer platforms.