Foster hopes to meet all medical demands for Pebax elastomer

Arkema, the producer of Pebax, declared a force majeure on Pebax last month because a fatal explosion March 31 dramatically cut supplies of CDT, a chemical used to make Pebax and nylon 12. Foster Corp. (Putnam, CT) is the exclusive North American distributor of Pebax MED.

"We're trying to provide everybody's needs 100% based on historical requirements and allow for some additional new development on a case-by-case basis," Acquarulo said. "Is there enough for automotive, absolutely not, but there is enough for medical, which consumes less than 10% of the total volume. Supplies will be available if customers can help us manage the inventory levels."

Arkema announced last week in an interview with PlasticsToday that life-saving medical applications would be given priority over automotive because of the lengthy time, approximately 12 months, required to qualify new materials for medical applications.

Pebax is a thermoplastic elastomer made up of block copolymers consisting of a sequence of polyamide (nylon) and polyether segments. It is sole-sourced in the manufacturing of balloon catheters used to open blood vessels close to the heart.

Larry Acquarulo also told PlasticsToday that there will be some allowance for growth in demand based on recent history.

"The market tends to grow 5% a year and that is pretty consistent. We are making accommodations for that growth."

Evonik hopes to get its German CDT plant back into production by the end of the year.

Rapid tooling technology opens up route to low-cost cast metal components

Rapid tooling technology opens up route to low-cost cast metal components

A Georgia Tech (Atlanta, GA) research team has developed a novel technology that enables ceramic molds to be fabricated directly from CAD data and it could change how industry designs and casts complex, costly metal parts according to its developer, Suman Das, a professor at the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering.


Suman Das, a professor at Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering, displays a ceramic mold produced directly from digital designs using large area maskless photopolymerization (LAMP) technology. In his right hand, he holds a single-crystal superalloy turbine airfoil that was cast using a ceramic mold of the kind he holds in his left hand.


A collection of molds made through large area maskless photopolymerization (LAMP) technology and airfoil components produced using them.

Das explains: "Today most precision metal castings are designed using CAD, but the next step—creating the ceramic mold with which the part is cast [using investment casting]—currently involves a sequence of six major operations requiring expensive precision-machined dies and hundreds of tooling pieces."

"The result is a costly process that typically produces many defective molds and waste parts before a useable prototype is achieved," Das says. "This trial-and-error development phase often requires many months to cast a part that is accurate enough to enter the next stage, which involves testing and evaluation."

By contrast, Das's approach involves a device that builds ceramic molds directly from a CAD design, completing the task much faster and producing far fewer unusable parts. Called Large Area Maskless Photopolymerization (LAMP), this high-resolution digital process accretes the mold layer by layer by projecting bitmaps of ultraviolet light onto a mixture of photosensitive resin and ceramic particles, and then selectively curing the mixture to a solid.

The technique stacks one 100-micron layer on top of another until the structure is complete. After the mold is formed, the cured resin is removed through binder burnout and the remaining ceramic is sintered in a furnace. The result is a fully ceramic structure into which molten metal—such as nickel-based superalloys or titanium-based alloys—are poured, producing a highly accurate casting.

"The LAMP process lowers the time required to turn a CAD design into a test-worthy part from a year to about a week," Das said. "We eliminate the scrap and the tooling, and each digitally manufactured mold is identical to the others."

"We're confident that our approach can lower costs by at least 25 percent and reduce the number of unusable waste parts by more than 90 percent, while eliminating 100 percent of the tooling," says Das. A prototype LAMP alpha machine is currently building six typical turbine-engine airfoil molds in six hours. Das predicts that a larger beta machine—currently being built at Georgia Tech and scheduled for installation at a PCC Airfoils (Beachwood, OH) facility in 2012—will produce 100 molds at a time in about 24 hours.

Wide applicability

Although the current work focuses on turbine-engine airfoils, Das believes the LAMP technique will be effective in the production of many types of intricate metal parts. He envisions a scenario in which companies could send out part designs to digital foundries and receive test castings within a short time, much as integrated-circuit designers send CAD plans to chip foundries today.

Moreover, he said, direct digital manufacturing enabled by LAMP should allow designers to create increasingly sophisticated pieces capable of achieving greater efficiency in jet engines and other systems.

"This process can produce parts of a complexity that designers could only dream of before," he says. "The digital technique takes advantage of high-resolution optics and precision motion systems to achieve extremely sharp, small features - on the order of 100 microns."

Das also notes that the new process not only creates testable prototypes but could also be used in the actual manufacturing process. That would allow more rapid production of complex metal parts, in both low and high volumes, at lower costs in a variety of industries. This could potentially impact applications employing advanced engineering plastics.

The project, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), has received $4.65 million in funding. Georgia Tech is also working in collaboration with the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI) on the

Recycling made simple

Recycling made simple

As the costs of virgin material remain consistently high, it’s no wonder that recycling equipment manufacturers are expanding and innovating, and, in one case, doing better than ever. Austria-based Erema, the global leader in the market for the development and production of plastic recycling systems and components, achieved a record turnover of €115 million from April 2011 to March 2012, recording its best fiscal year of all time and a 40% increase over the previous year. Moreover, this result was an incredible 25% up on the former record year of 2007/08—prior to the economic crisis.

A schematic illustrating the Corema concept.
At PLAST, in Milan, Erema was touting an innovation described as “two companies—one idea.” Called Corema, it involves a joint development from Erema and German compounding and extrusion giant Coperion, and combines the strengths of both companies into a single recycling and compounding system adding, as was pointed out in the leaflet handed out at the stand, “new opportunities along the value-added chain.”

The Erema recycling system uses a multi-purpose cutting/compacting unit and durable single-screw extruder, which processes the melt through the filtration system. The filtered melt is then directly fed into the co-rotating, self-cleaning twin-screw extruder from Coperion, which is equipped with a degassing unit. The single-step melting concept and short, defined residence time minimizes shearing impact. The direct feeding of high-quality melt from a single screw results in very low energy costs. Filling, blending, and reinforcing occurs in a single-step process.

A spokesperson at the Erema booth was emphatic about the benefits of the system: “The two-in-one system offers a high-quality regranulation system that yields a very high-value final product using low-priced raw material as input. We think it’s a really big step forward, and one that can mean a lot of savings.“

With the introduction of the redesigned L:Gran recycling line at the stand in Milan, another Austrian manufacturer of plastics recycling machinery, Next Generation Recyclingmaschinen GmbH (NGR), was showing off a fully re-engineered “light version” of the company’s S:GRAN system that is suitable for in-house postindustrial scrap applications. Like its big brother, the L:Gran machine features NGR’s patented one-step cutter-feeder-extruder technology, which combines a single-shaft cutter and screw extruder in one unit, eliminating the need for pre-cutting and densification of the material. The material is fed directly into the extruder without losing the frictional heat generated during the cutting process, which guarantees a high quality of recycled pellets with minimal loss of physical characteristics. Reprocessing costs are low, and the “dump-and-run” mode makes it possible to run the machines with intermittent operator attention and still get consistently high output rates.

In redesigning the L:Gran, the shredder has become more easily accessible for faster cleanouts and faster material changeovers. The recycling lines are fully automated, and now feature “single-button” start-ups and shutdowns, eliminating problems with restarts with a full hopper and extruder screw. The design of the machine, which is extremely cost-efficient for in-line and off-line applications, is compact and robust. The combination of low power consumption, small footprint, low operating costs, and low manpower requirements, plus a pellet output rate of up to 230 kg/hr, make the L:Gran an economical choice for reprocessing film edge trims, fill rolls, or loose material.

At the stand of recycling equipment maker Tecnova, the company’s Refil/1 in-line system for reclaiming film scrap was being shown. Production rates of the system, which can handle a wide range of materials, including biopolymers, are claimed to be 40-45kg/hr.

Also on view was the company's Mini 60 line, which the company says is able to process bioplastic, in addition to LDPE/HDPE/PP film. The line is equipped with a special grinder, a die-face cutter, and a cooling system, all specifically designed to be able to handle biopolymers as well as conventional plastics. The regenerated granules can be directly re-introduced into the extrusion process for the production of (biodegradable) film.

Tecnova's E130/54D and E160/54D double-degassing recycling lines are available with silo and forced feeding to recycle film scraps, or with hopper feeding to process ground materials.

Renewably sourced additive offers biodegradable alternative to phthalates

Calling it a real alternative to phthalates and other plasticizers, Jungbunzlauer is promoting a fully degradable citrate ester, CITROFOL BII, which has been certified by the DIN CERTCO Institute to the U.S. and European biodegradation standards: ASTM D 6400 and DIN E 13432. That certification requires biodegradation of at least 90% of the materials within 180 days.

Jungbunzlauer Citrifol BIIJungbunzlauer, which describes itself as a leader in citric acid production, says it can supply citrate plasticizers in large-scale quantities. In addition to individual esters, the company also offers CITROFOL systems; a range of tailor made plasticizers for technical applications that combines outstanding curing behavior with low migration properties. Jungbunzlauer said that according to its customers, its CITROFOL BII is competitively priced compared to other plasticizers from renewable resources.

CITROFOL BII is recommended for use in biopolymers such as PLA (polylactic acid) in agricultural applications such as mulch films or films used to prevent soil erosion. Other potential applications include medical devices, baby diapers, toys, cling films, closure gaskets, or in disposable catering items such as cutlery and plates, among others. Jungbunzlauer says that as citrate esters, the additives could also function in applications such as vinyl flooring, wallpaper or synthetic leather.

Nordson Corp. acquires extrusion and coating die supplier EDI

Nordson Corp. said it will acquire extrusion-dies producer EDI Holdings Inc. for $200 million as it seeks to expand its presence and offerings in the flexible packaging and plastic processor markets.

Publicly traded Nordson, which makes precision dispensing machines for the manufacturing of consumer goods, stated it anticipates the transaction will close in its third quarter and expects the acquisition of EDI to be accretive to the company's earnings in the first full year of operation.

EDI Holdings, also known as Extrusion Die Industries, based in Chippewa Falls, WI, employs approximately 317 people, with additional operations in Cologne, Germany and Shanghai, China. The company will now operate as part of Nordson's adhesive dispensing systems segment.

EDI's operations include its March 2012 acquisition of Premier Dies Corp., which augmented the company's slot coating and flat polymer extrusion dies offerings.

In 2010, EDI's board agreed to sell the company to private equity firm Bertram Capital, which at the time marked the company's first ownership change since a 2003 management buyout. EDI's other acquisitions included the 2007 purchase of slot-die manufacturer Liberty Coating Systems and the purchase of Quality Machine, which offered reworked blown-film dies and chrome-plated cooling and winding rolls.

EDI serves a wide range of customers, from Fortune 500 companies to custom plastics processors to extrusion equipment OEMs, who use the company's custom-designed proprietary extrusion dies, feedblocks and auxiliary equipment to produce polymer products, from multi-layer barrier films for food and beverage flexible packaging to micron-scale coatings for flat panel displays to separator films for batteries.

EDI also provides services such as equipment re-manufacturing, process labs for customers to run pilot tests on new products, and technical support contracts to consult with customers on enhancing productivity and improving uptime.

Nordson president and CEO Michael Hilton stated that EDI's presence in the global plastics processing equipment industry is a clear fit for Nordson's strategy of acquisitions that provide differentiated precision technology.

"Much like Nordson, EDI provides industry-leading products that are critical enabling technologies for end users to optimize productivity and uptime, yet these products are a relatively small portion of the total extrusion systems and coating lines on which they operate," he said. "EDI's strong customer relationships and installed product base also provides multiple recurring revenue opportunities, including upgrades, replacements, or maintenance to existing products. In addition, EDI complements Nordson's existing extrusion die product line, providing scale, product breadth and geographic reach to the Verbruggen platform."

Founded in 1954 and headquartered in Westlake, OH, Nordson has operations and offices in more than 30 countries. The company engineers, manufactures and markets products and systems used for dispensing adhesives, coatings, sealants, biomaterials and other materials.  

Nordson serves a wide variety of end markets including packaging, nonwovens, electronics, medical, appliances, energy, transportation, construction, and general product assembly and finishing.

O'Sullivan Films joins project to replace PVC in IV bags

O'Sullivan Films (Winchester, VA) is joining a year-old collaboration to mass produce a cost-effective medical grade, PVC-free film. Genesis Plastics Welding and Teknor Apex started the project to join olefin-based thermoplastic elastomer films in response to environmental concerns about PVC by some hospital administrators. Elastomers have become the material of choice to replace PVC because they have a soft feel and other properties suitable for medical applications.

O'Sullivan Films, a leading producer of medical grade films, says it can now mass-produce USP class I-VI film made from Teknor Apex's Medalist medical elastomers. The film is sealed with Genesis' proprietary ecoGenesis technology, using radio frequency (RF) welding, which requires no additives or adhesives to manufacture a variety of medical supplies and equipment, including fluid delivery, storage and drainage bags.

"While PVC still has its place in many industries and applications, eliminating or reducing PVC in the healthcare sector is a major focus for many hospitals and healthcare systems," said Tom Ryder, president and CEO of Genesis Plastics Welding. "With the collaboration of our companies, hospital groups such as those that have recently joined the Healthier Hospitals Initiative can now provide patients with PVC-free medical bags, thereby reducing potential exposure to dioxins."

 O'Sullivan films are made from FDA-approved raw materials, manufactured under current GMP and meet ISO Certification 13485 standards.

"Medalist medical elastomers offer manufacturers of fluid delivery, storage and drainage bags several important advantages over widely used PVC," said Elliott Pritikin, senior medical market manager for Teknor Apex's Thermoplastic Elastomer Division. "Besides being free of halogens and phthalates, Medalist elastomers are available at lower hardness ranges, provide a broader processing window, exhibit greater elasticity and superior low-temperature flexibility, have a wider range of service temperatures, and save weight because of their lower density. Like PVC, Medalist elastomers are available in fully transparent grades."

Genesis Plastics Welding, Teknor Apex and O'Sullivan Films are jointly announcing their new approach with O'Sullivan at MD&M East this week in Philadelphia.

Steel to lead lightweighting efforts in transportation sector - report

While carbon fiber and nanomaterials tend to gain all the hype, other advanced structural materials such as magnesium and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) will have a greater impact on efficient energy usage in the transportation sector, according to a recent report by Lux Research (Boston, MA).

While AHSS remains the current leader in lightweighting according to Lux Research, carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) can offer greater benefits, while aluminum alloys occupy the middle ground. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, though it is hobbled by concerns about availability, and titanium's cost continues to inhibit adoption outside of a few high-end applications, according to the report.

"Meeting rising energy demand while minimizing environmental impact and maintaining economic growth and opportunity is one of the most important issues of the 21st century - and using current energy reserves more efficiently will no doubt play a critical part," said Ross Kozarsky, Lux Research Analyst and the lead author of the report entitled Structural Navigation: Optimizing Materials Selection in Automotive and Aerospace. "The transportation sector commands nearly one-third of global energy demand, providing a vast swath of saving opportunity, and enhancing operating efficiency with lighter structural materials is one of the most promising avenues towards achieving this goal," he added.


A single pound saved can be worth $300 in aerospace applications.

Lux Research analysts conducted decision-tree analyses to understand which materials flourish where - now and in the future - and help automotive and aerospace companies, and guide suppliers and material developers to the best opportunities. Among their findings:

AHSS is the cost and availability leader. At an average price of $1.70/kg, AHSS is the cheapest advanced structural material and available in plenty. Its affordable price is a significant advantage for high-volume vehicles, but properties aren't as dazzling as some other materials, and its limited ductility and welding pose problems.

Aluminum is often the best short-term bet. Aluminum is second only to steel in cost and availability because of the scale brought by global giants like Alcoa, Rio Tinto Alcan and Rusal. Its alloys occupy the middle ground on the overall structural materials spectrum and in many uses is the best material to use in the short term without disrupting manufacturing paradigms.

Aerospace is decades ahead of automotive in CFRP, primarily because the economics make sense. In aviation, a 1-lb. reduction is reportedly worth a $100 to $300 premium. While new aerospace models like Airbus' A350 and Boeing's 787 Dreamliner employ over 50% CFRP by weight, on average polymer composites constitute less than 2% of an automobile's total weight. This dichotomy in penetration has resulted in Boeing and Airbus enjoying longstanding relationships with major carbon fiber suppliers such as Toray, Teijin, Mitsubishi Rayon, Hexcel, Cytec and Formosa

An Olympian plastics effort

London Olympics 2012 is fast approaching, which is pretty exciting. It honestly feels like yesterday when the entire U.S. was cheering on swimmer Michael Phelps as he took home eight gold medals at Beijing in 2008.

I touched a bit on the London Olympics in my article where Coca-Cola pledged it will make this year's Olympics the greenest by recycling all soft drinks bottles that are disposed of at Olympic and Paralympic venues and return them into new bottles within six weeks.

It got me thinking about how much the Olympics run on plastics throughout the entire games.

Plastic infrastructure

During the construction phase, Peter Davis, director of The British Plastics Federation, took a tour of Startford, the site of the Olympic Park, and he noted "the large amounts of plastic pipes for gas, water, electricity and communications waiting to go into the ground."

"It was pleasing to see a start being made on the installation of the plastic sheet canopy and surround on the main stadium," he stated.

BPF said its members have won several contracts with the Olympics, which includes under floor heating, floor covering, and stadium seating.

However, according to BPF, the use of plastics in the London 2012 Olympic Games isn't limited to the materials and products used across its sites. "Hornby PLC, the models and collectibles group, have also secured a license to provide official London 2012 merchandise across its Corgi, Hornby, Scalextric and Airfix brands, which rely heavily on the use of plastics in their designs," BPF stated.

The Durakerb Group will supply both the North and the South Park with its Durakerb lightweight recycled plastic kerbing system. Durakerb is made from recycled PP and HDPE.

Running with plastics

Athletes will also sport plastics gear and even suit up in recycled plastic bottles. 

Sporting-goods giant Nike recently unveiled a new line of sportswear designed to help Olympians go faster, farther and longer, according to the company. Nike is manufacturing its 2012 Olympic kits using less material, and more recycled plastics, than in years past.

The suits are made with 82% recycled polyester fabric, which is made from recycled plastic bottles. It takes an average of 13 bottles to create enough yarn for one uniform. The basketball uniforms are made from an average of 22 bottles and are 41% lighter than the uniforms worn at the 2008 Beijing Games.

The plastic wrap

Dow Chemical, an Olympic sponsor, is producing a sustainable, polyester and polyethylene wrap that will encircle London's Olympic Stadium during the Olympic and Paralympic Games, home to several athletic events, and the opening and closing ceremonies.

The wrap will comprise of 336 individual panels - each approximately 25 meters high and 2.5 meters wide and will help the stadium become the visual centerpiece of the Olympic Park at game time, Dow stated. The wrap will include resins made by Dow's performance plastics division and will be up to 35% lighter and have a lower carbon footprint when compared to conventional materials, according to the company.

Dow's involvement hasn't been without controversy. Some say Dow shouldn't be involved with the Olympics due to its links to a company accused in the 1984 gas leak in Bhopal, India. Dow bought that company involved 16 years after the 1984 accident that killed an estimated 15,000 people.

Dow stated it was not responsible for the tragedy and that legal claims on the case in India have been settled.

Still, the Olympics are going forward with the wrap, and Dow stated its products can be found all over the Olympics, even down to the track at the stadium.

Those are just a few ways the plastics industry will have a presence at the Olympics. Tell us, which Olympic event are you most excited about?

The week that was: Highlights and the top 10 articles for 5/14-5/18

). The automotive industry has been buzzing about the how the CDT shortage is impacting PA12 production, but this week, more fall out from Evonik's Marl, Germany plant fire was reported on by Doug Smock, who followed up with a story on how Arkema declared force majeure on its Pebax elastomer, which is used in balloon catheters, with an interview with Aurelien Paumier, director of Arkema's Technical Polymers Business Unit. Paumier wasted no time in getting to the crux of the potentially huge problem, saying, "There is a lot of panic among the medical customers because they would require several months to validate new materials." Doug also picked the brain of ex-Baxter engineering and SPE president, Len Czuba, on the hottest topics of the day in the medical industry, including PVC bans, biomaterial pricing, and antimicrobials. Regarding pricing, Doug also got Solvay to weigh in on accusations that it and others are overcharging for implantable plastics.

"A swirling vortex of plastic bags, bottles and other debris, a landfill some say is twice the size of Texas." That's how Heather Caliendo described what's known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch; a point of concern for industry and environmentalists before a new study indicated that the problem may be much worse than initially assumed. Heather interviewed the study's lead author, who admitted that even for her, the results were "surprising." Heather had a number of stakeholders weigh in on the matter, including the American Chemistry Council's Keith Christman, who said plainly, "Plastics don't belong in the ocean." Heather also highlighted Coca-Cola's partnership with Eco Plastics to build up the U.K.'s plastics recycling capabilities, with some ambitious bottle-to-bottle goals for the upcoming Olympic summer games in London. Finally, Heather spoke with the respective CEOs of D&W Fine Pack and Clear Lam Packaging regarding the former's acquisition of the latter's thermoforming division. Get the leaders' respective perspectives here.

Clare Goldsberry piqued reader interest with the tale of River Bend Industries, which found life-after-Whirlpool, when the appliance OEM pulled the plug on its Fort Smith, AR facility. Read how diversification, proprietary products, and marketing helped keep River Bend going strong after a customer that once represented 80-90% of its business picked up and left. Clare also brought a discussion started on LinkedIn to PlasticsToday; namely, are successful companies and individuals currently being demonized in the U.S.?

Finally, how's this for "Nice work if you can get it, and if you can get it, tell me how." Some of you might have read Heather Caliendo's coverage of the recent TAPPI PLACE conference in Seattle. One company read it, and liked it so much, they pasted it on their site nearly verbatim and will be charging readers to receive it in a packaging newsletter.

Journalism is currently facing a myriad number of issues, and no doubt the wrenching changes that have already occurred are nowhere near done, but for my money, there's no issue as threatening, or pernicious, as aggregation. Folks that do it offer a number of reasons, but the scraping of independently reported journalism to prop up your own site, without investing in its original creation might be a sound business model, but that doesn't make it right.

With that, here are the Top 10 stories for the week, based on click throughs from our daily e-mail newsletter: NewsFeed.

  1. Marketing Musings: How to survive when customers leave town
  2. Sounding off on PVC bans, biomaterials' pricing and antimicrobials
  3. A deep issue: Plastic waste in Pacific Ocean increases 100-fold
  4. PLAST 2012 in perspective
  5. Do you know enough about silicone elastomers?
  6. PLAST 2012: Macro Engineering shows off low-shrink extrusion technology
  7. Polypropylene intake manifolds solve multiple challenges, acoustically superior to polyamide
  8. Arkema declares force majeure on Pebax elastomers
  9. 'Life-saving' medical applications get priority in elastomer force majeure
  10. European consortium to develop sustainable packaging that reduces food waste 

Albemarle to cease phosphorous flame retardant production

Albemarle will be exiting the phosphorous flame retardants business, with initial plans to cease operations at its Avonmouth, UK and Nanjing, China sites, saying the move reflects the need to address underperforming assets. "It has become clear that our current phosphorus business and product lines are not strategically aligned with Vision 2015's growth plans," Luke Kissam, Albemarle CEO, said in a release. As the electronics industry worked to remove brominated or halogenated flame retardants from its products, some pointed to phosphorous-based flame retardants as a replacement in items like enclosures and circuit boards.Albemarle

Albemarle said the move will have a cash cost of $5 to $15 million, with payback expected in approximately one year. It will also incur a one-time after-tax accounting charge, ranging from $80 to $95 million in the second quarter 2012. Once these actions and a restructuring program to eliminate costs allocated to the phosphorus business are completed, Albemarle is forecasting that annual earnings per share should improve by $0.10 to $0.15 per share in 2013.

In the company's first quarter earnings statement, released on April 19, the Polymer Solutions segment, which includes its flame retardants business, saw net sales drop by 12% year over year from $258 to $228 million, while segment income fell by 23% over the same time period of $69 to $54 million. Volume was down 17%, while prices where up 5%.

At the time, the company said it saw signs of further demand recovery across most fire-safety markets, including connectors, enclosures, PCBs, auto, and construction. The company also said that it expected the first commercial campaign of products from its Earthwise portfolio to be begin in the second quarter.

The company's phosphorous flame retardants include the Antiblaze brand for rigid and flexible polyurethane foams, coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers; as well as NcendX for electronic enclosures.

Remaining FR products
Remaining flame retardant products include its brominated line, with Saytex for electronic enclosures, electronic/electrical components, insulation foams, and textiles; its GreenArmor, "eco-friendly fire safety solution"; and its mineral flame retardants.

These include aluminum hydroxide flame retardants (white powder) for processing temperatures up to about 210°C, used in wire and cable, electronic/electrical components based on thermoset resins, building materials, mass transportation, paints and varnishes, and paper and plaster with organic binder, as well as magnesium hydroxide flame retardants for processing temperatures up to about 310°C for wire and cable, electronic/electrical components based on polyamide resins, and building materials.